However, only in did the government of Pakistan start putting efforts into the implementation of residential biogas technology as an alternative source of energy. Currently, Pakistan has more than installed biogas plants to meet its domestic fuel needs. These plants are efficiently producing up to 2. The scheme was divided into three stages. In stage 2, the budget expenses for sponsorship was shared between the recipients and government, and in stage 3, all the economic sponsorships were withdrawn by the government though free technical supports continued but not reliable. The council develops and disseminates biogas plants and other suitable options of renewable energy generation into communities in the remote areas [ 63 ].
On top of that, three community based plants were installed in the remote parts of Islamabad, supplying energy to about 20 homes. Sahir and Qureshi [ 2 ] suggested that by installing pilot size plants, the available biomass can be used to operate high level biogas plants based on crops and dungs in the remote regions and street wastes in the urban areas.
There are , cattle in the area, producing wastes as the feedstock for the biogas plant. Another biogas plant at Shakarganj Mill, with the capacity to produce up to 8. Feedstock available and batch loading are also important parameters for efficient biogas plant operation and help to maximize biogas yield.
However, over or under loading of feedstock and water affects the overall efficiency of the process. It has been observed that carbon is consumed 25 times faster than nitrogen during anaerobic fermentation by microorganisms. Therefore, to meet this requirement, microbes require 25— carbon to nitrogen ratio with most of the carbon degraded within the minimum retention time [ 68 , 69 ]. Retention time refers to the digestion period for which the waste remains inside the digester. The digestibility of waste is essential to promote its decomposition into simple organics and biogas products.
Research Paper by Mirza Majid Ali
The digestibility is usually enhanced by treatments using calcium hydroxide, ammonia, and sodium hydroxide. Water and urea can also improve waste digestibility [ 71 ]. Pakistan has a considerable potential to produce biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Various initiatives have been commenced by the government to increase biofuel production. Sugar millers offer incentives and materials such as fertilizers and pesticides to sugarcane growers to enhance crop production and maximize bioethanol production [ 14 ].
In , only 6 out of 80 sugar mills in the country had the facilities to convert raw molasses [ 14 ]. Though several small projects have been carried out to evaluate the commercial applications of bioethanol, significant efforts to develop and promote bioethanol are still lacking due to ineffective government policies and lack of infrastructure for large-scale manufacturing. Also, a major portion of the limited bioethanol produced is traded in different forms such as alcohol and molasses.
Essay on Energy Crisis
A significant potential to produce biodiesel also exists in Pakistan through the use of castor bean, a self-grown crop found in different parts of the country. Due to its high oil content, castor bean can be a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Castor oil has the advantage of being soluble in alcohol under ambient temperature conditions, and this is beneficial to biodiesel production.
It is an untapped resource in the country; thus, utilization for biodiesel production will not only contribute to meeting the energy demands of the country but also emerge as a value-adding process that can promote economic, social, and environmental sustainability of the country.
Design and operating mechanism of a hydropower plant [ 74 ]. Based on the flow of water, hydropower power plants are classified into small and large. Large hydro power plants require large dams together with water flow control mechanism [ 75 , 76 ], whereas small hydro power plants SHPPs are used to extract energy from low volumes of water flow such as canals, rivers, and streams [ 74 ]. SHPPs are run-of-river systems, and thus do not require any extensive structures such as dam to store water, leading to significantly low environmental impacts [ 77 , 78 ].
Hence, SHPPs are considered ideal renewable energy generation. Hydropower plays a leading role in the total energy mix of several countries in the world.
The major hydropower HP projects in service with installed capacity and under construction with proposed capacity in Pakistan [ 5 , 88 ]. Apart from electricity generation purposes, dams are also used to control flood in Pakistan.
- Talk on Future Electricity Demand and Supply Scenarios for Pakistan by LUMS Energy Institute | LUMS.
- essay answer bank interset rate policy.
- the childrens hour play essay.
- gatsby character analysis essay.
- an essay on man modern translation.
One of the dams used for that purpose is Kala-bagh KB. Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces were the worst affected, those suffered immense losses [ 86 ]. This massive destruction resulted long-lasting impacts not only on social human life and economy but it has also resulted in destruction of natural environment posing land erosion, killing of wildlife and other natural resources [ 87 ]. The feasibility study of the KB dam showed the construction of a ft high rock-fill dam that would be able to store approximately 7,,, The dam consists of two spillways for effective distribution of flood water for instant and appropriate water disposal.
During probable floods, these spillways are able to discharge more than 2 million cusecs of water [ 83 ]. The mean annual river flow at KB is high, approximately ,,, Therefore, the development of KB dam is important to the government for flood management which capable in preventing future flood risks and combat energy crisis.
Energy Crisis In Pakistan And Its Possible Solutions, Causes and Effects
To realize the full benefits of hydropower generation systems in Pakistan, crucial policy reforms are obligatory to develop hydropower by enhancing sustainable generation capacity. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF.
- Will energy shortage be overcome? - Newspaper - roacolape.tk;
- business marketing case studies.
- Energy Articles.
- good words to use while writing an essay.
- uf admissions essay question;
- Electricity Crisis In Pakistan Economics Essay.
Energy, Sustainability and Society December , Cite as. Renewable energy deployment to combat energy crisis in Pakistan. Samo Y. Open Access. First Online: 22 June Review Background Pakistan is one of the most populated countries in the southern Asia region, contributing approximately 2. The country is expected to serve as an international trade and energy corridor in the near future due to its strategic location [ 1 , 2 ].
Hence, among other social, economic, and political factors, Pakistan needs to ensure its energy supplies meet the direct and indirect demands of the country not only for maintaining economic growth but also for supporting regional and global economic initiatives. The vast deficit between demand and supply of electricity recorded in — was As a result, many entrepreneurs and industrialists have invested and moved their businesses to neighboring countries [ 3 ].
Hence, short- and long-term measures are required to solve the existing energy problems. Open image in new window. Sustainable supply of energy to meet the current and future domestic and industrial demands in Pakistan will rely on full-scale generation from the different energy sources in order to make significant contributions to the supply chain. Pakistan has four main renewable energy sources. These are wind, solar, hydro, and biomass. These resources have a significant potential to provide solutions to the long-lasting energy crisis in Pakistan [ 8 ]. Hence, a steady development of these resources is a crucial step to overcome the existing energy challenges in an environmental friendly manner.
Among the different renewable energy sources, solar energy has received the most research attention [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
Gondal and Sahir [ 15 ], considered 0. A survey conducted by Hasnain and Gibbs [ 16 ] showed that the interior part of the county consists of mainly agricultural land, which is appropriate for the development of biomass feedstock, whereas northern and southern corridors have a significant potential for hydro, wind, and solar.
You are here
This finding is useful as it might possibly improve the diverse energy supply market and decrease the dependency on imported fuels and environmental pollution. The development and use of alternative energy resources have been a major endeavor since The Pakistani government has set up a recognized body [ 17 ], to coordinate efforts in this area. This organization plays an important role in narrowing the gap between demand and supply of electricity by promoting the utilization of renewable energy.
Solar is believed to be one of the most endowed renewable energy sources. It is reliable and capable of producing substantial amount of energy without posing adverse impacts on the environment. Generally, PV cell and solar thermal conversion systems are used to capture sun energy for various applications in rural and urban areas. PV technology is capable of converting direct sun radiation into electricity Fig.
Solar thermal technology uses thermal solar collectors to capture energy from the sun to heat up water to steam for electricity generation [ 23 , 24 ]. This unique geographical position and climate conditions is advantageous for the exploitation of solar energy. The prospects of solar energy in Pakistan have also been widely investigated by many researchers [ 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 ].
Adnan et al. Ahmed et al. Khalil and Zaidi [ 33 ] conducted the survey of wind speed and intensity of solar radiations at different locations of country. The comparison showed that the wind and solar energy are most appropriate alternative resources. Hasanain and Gibbs [ 16 ] detailed out the significance of solar energy in rural areas of the country.
Table 1 Running cost evaluation for different energy sources [ 23 ]. Hence, the availability of biomass is very extensive particularly from agriculture and livestock sources, including crop residues and waste from animals. Due to limited access to grid electricity and advanced technologies in these remote areas, most people are powered using traditional practices to fulfill their energy needs [ 1 , 2 ].
The sugar cane production industries produces bagasse as residue and this can be used to produce electricity to power sugar mills. Pakistan is the fifth largest country worldwide with sugarcane producing capacity of over 87,, million tons. Moreover, urban areas produce large quantities of municipal waste which could possibly be digested to produce biogas, a renewable fuel further used to produce green electricity, heat, or as vehicle fuel and the digested substrate, commonly named digestate, and used as fertilizer in agriculture [ 13 , 52 , 56 ].
Water is one of the most vital constituents that support all form of life on earth and offers various other services such as power generation [ 72 ]. Hydropower relates to the generation of power from dropping water [ 73 ]. The kinetic energy present in water dropping from elevated levels can be transferred into mechanical power via hydropower turbine and then to electricity using an electric generator Fig.
Electricity Crisis In Pakistan Economics Essay
The output of electricity is directly proportional to the elevation of moving water pressure and flow rate [ 74 ]. Hydropower is a major source of renewable energy in Pakistan with a great potential for SHPPs especially in locations between the Arabian Sea and mountainous areas such as Hindu Kush, Himalayas, and Karakorum. These features offer enough potential energy to the falling water to develop a maximum pressure [ 81 ]. Moreover, major rivers such as Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum, falling into Indus River can be explored for power generation [ 5 , 82 ].
Pakistan has 18,,, Therefore, additional water storage capacity such as dams will be obligatory for future sustainable irrigation and electric power generation. Ninety percent of this comes from hydropower resources in the northern parts of Pakistan [ 1 , 14 ]. Energy is crucial to the socio-economic development of all countries. A steady transformation is being observed throughout world from primary energy supplies based on conventional sources to renewable resources. Pakistan continues to formulate efforts towards renewable energy endeavors.
Wind, solar, hydro, and biomass are the resources that are abundantly present in Pakistan.